Collagen (collagen, from the Greek: Kolla, meaning gum and gen denote
meaning, product or component) is the major protein in connective tissues in
muscles , skin, ligaments, cartilage , bone, and tissues, and accounts for a large proportion of up to 25 percent of all proteins in mammals and some other
Collagen proteins have a long fibrous structure and have a different
function to spherical proteins and other enzymes.
Collagen proteins are a strong
bundle of what are called collagen fibers, The substance holding the body
together is this, Collagen provides strength and structure to form a scaffold.
Collagen and vitamin C work together , Collagen is an insoluble, fibrous protein
composed of amino acids , This protein is produced naturally by a healthy body.
Structure of collagen
The shape and structural properties of a native molecule of collagen are
determined by its triple-helical α-domain(s), A single triple-helical domain is found in classical collagen molecules containing approximately 95 percent of the molecule(1),
But there are also other forms of collagens that exist which have been
shown to comprise of several triple-helical α-domains which only account for a fraction of the molecule’s overall mass.
The triple-helical collagen domain structure consists of three distinct α-chains and gives collagen the name “tropocollagen,” each of which includes a distinctive L-handed polyproline amino acid sequence, also called polyproline form II helix(2),
The proper folding of both of these chains requires that a glycine residue is present in the polypeptide chain at every third location, For example, each α-chain is made up of multiple triplet Gly-Y-Z sequences, in which Y and Z can be any amino acid,Y is commonly found as a proline and Z is commonly found as hydroxyprolin , It is also assumed that the presence of hydroxyprolin in the Y position leads to the stability of the helical form .
These three α-chains are then twisted in a rope-like manner around each other to
produce the molecule ‘s total tightly packed, three-helical form. The α-chain
interaction is stabilized by means of interchain hydrogen bonding which makes the molecule relatively resistant to attack by other molecules, Each α-chain is surrounded by a hydration sphere that allows for the presence of a hydrogen bonding network between the water molecules and the peptide acceptor groups, This hydrogen bonding occurs when a glycine residue’s amino group (NH) forms a peptide bond with an adjacent residual carbonyl (C=0), The total molecule isa pprox. 300 nm in length and 1.5-2 nm in diameter, The active sites were also illustrated in the triple-helix to indicate their positions(3).
Important of collagen
Reducing joint pain: Cartilage gets thinner and harder with age which can cause joint pain, and collagen can help alleviate joint pain and inflammatory symptoms.
Where one study showed that people who took supplements of collagen type II
for 90 days had arthritis symptoms by 40%.
Skin aging: Fine lines and wrinkles can start to develop with age, and the skin can also become slackening and dehydrated.
Collagen is known for its skin strength
and gives it resilience and elasticity, making it look younger and safer.
Support muscle building and burning fat: as collagen is one of the main
components of muscle tissue, and so it significantly affects muscle mass building, and besides that it includes a concentrated amount of amino acid glycine, which is used to create creatine protein, which can contribute to supplying the muscles with the energy required throughout the exercise.
Reducing cellulite: This is a disorder that happens when part of the fatty layer
moves upwards into the connective tissue, resulting in the appearance of slight indentation and clumping in the skin, It is worth noting that collagen helps boost the appearance of cellulite but to confirm this, further studies are still needed.
Improving the protection of the digestive system: Thus, when collagen forms the connective tissue in the intestine, it helps to protect and reinforce the digestive lining.
Wound healing: developing new skin cells at the wound site, which
It is possible to use collagen dressings to help heal chronic wounds that do not
respond to other therapies, and wounds that secrete fluids such as urine or sweat.
Necrotic or rotting wounds and second-degree burns but it should be remembered that collagen dressings are not recommended in cases of third-
degree burns or in patients with cattle allergies.
Tissue regeneration: Collagen-dependent membranes may be used to treat gums to promote the growth of certain cell types, In oral surgery, collagen barriers can prevent the rapidly growing cells around the gums from moving into the wound in the tooth, thereby preserving sufficient space to regenerate the dental cells.
Peripheral nerve regeneration in the prosthetic limbs: Patches of collagen tissue obtained from donors may be transplanted to help replenish the peripheral nerves in the vascular protheses, but often they can lead to a blood clot even though there is an agreement between collagen protheses and the body(4).
more explanision in next article
1-Yamazaki C, Kadoya Y, Hozumi K, Okano-Kosugi H, Asada S, Kitagawa K
et al. A collagen-mimetic triple helical supramolecule that evokes integrin-
dependent cell responses. Biomaterials. 2010;31(7):1925-1934.
2-Shoulders M, Raines R. Collagen Structure and Stability. Annual Review of
3- Bella J, Eaton M, Brodsky B, Berman H. Crystal and molecular structure of a
collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A resolution. Science. 1994;266(5182):75-81.
4-Collagen: What is it and what are its uses? [Internet]. Medicalnewstoday.com.
2020 [cited 31 May 2020]. Available from: